Category Archives: Linux

Automatic dynamic DNS updater using EdgeRouter / EdgeOS and

EdgeOS already supports Python (as of 1.10.9), so let’s write a short Python script. Replace with your username, password and domain on line 13 in the script.

import urllib2
import datetime
import os

print 'IP Updater - ' +

f = os.popen('/sbin/ifconfig eth0 | grep "inet\ addr" | cut -d: -f2 | cut -d" " -f1')

print 'IP detected as: ' + ip

  sendOne = urllib2.urlopen('' + ip).read()
  print sendOne

Schedule it to run recurrently:

touch /var/log/ibs-update.log
crontab -e

Add the following line:

0 * * * * python /home/ubnt/ >> /var/log/ibs-update.log

Note: /var/log is mounted in-memory on EdgeOS, so it’s not going to introduce wear-and-tear on the flash memory.

vnstat on EdgeRouter – historical bandwidth monitoring and graphical dashboard tutorial

This post will show you how to install vnstat and vnstati on the EdgeRouter for bandwidth monitoring, as well as how to create a graphical dashboardwith historical bandwidth data.


Add non-free sources to APT:

EdgeOS 1.X

set system package repository wheezy components 'main contrib non-free' 
set system package repository wheezy distribution wheezy 
set system package repository wheezy url
commit ; save
sudo apt-get update

EdgeOS 2.X

set system package repository stretch components 'main contrib non-free' 
set system package repository stretch distribution stretch
set system package repository stretch url
commit ; save
sudo apt-get update

Install the packages

sudo apt-get install vnstat vnstati

vnstat configuration

Edit the config file in /etc/vnstat.conf to be like the following. This will make sure your bandwidth data will survive a firmware update. (However, you’ll have to reinstall and reconfigure vnstat / vnstati after a firmware update).

# vnStat 1.11 config file

# default interface
Interface "eth0"

# location of the database directory
DatabaseDir "/var/lib/vnstat"

# locale (LC_ALL) ("-" = use system locale)
Locale "-"

# on which day should months change
MonthRotate 1

# date output formats for -d, -m, -t and -w
# see 'man date' for control codes
DayFormat    "%x"
MonthFormat  "%b '%y"
TopFormat    "%x"

# characters used for visuals
RXCharacter       "%"
TXCharacter       ":"
RXHourCharacter   "r"
TXHourCharacter   "t"

# how units are prefixed when traffic is shown
# 0 = IEC standard prefixes (KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB)
# 1 = old style binary prefixes (KB/MB/GB/TB)
UnitMode 0

# output style
# 0 = minimal & narrow, 1 = bar column visible
# 2 = same as 1 except rate in summary and weekly
# 3 = rate column visible
OutputStyle 3

# used rate unit (0 = bytes, 1 = bits)
RateUnit 1

# maximum bandwidth (Mbit) for all interfaces, 0 = disable feature
# (unless interface specific limit is given)
MaxBandwidth 1000

# interface specific limits
#  example 8Mbit limit for eth0 (remove # to activate):
#MaxBWeth0 8

# how many seconds should sampling for -tr take by default
Sampletime 5

# default query mode
# 0 = normal, 1 = days, 2 = months, 3 = top10
# 4 = dumpdb, 5 = short, 6 = weeks, 7 = hours
QueryMode 0

# filesystem disk space check (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
CheckDiskSpace 1

# database file locking (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
UseFileLocking 1

# how much the boot time can variate between updates (seconds)
BootVariation 15

# log days without traffic to daily list (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
TrafficlessDays 1

# vnstatd

# how often (in seconds) interface data is updated
UpdateInterval 30

# how often (in seconds) interface status changes are checked
PollInterval 5

# how often (in minutes) data is saved to file
SaveInterval 60

# how often (in minutes) data is saved when all interface are offline
OfflineSaveInterval 60

# force data save when interface status changes (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
SaveOnStatusChange 0

# enable / disable logging (0 = disabled, 1 = logfile, 2 = syslog)
UseLogging 1

# file used for logging if UseLogging is set to 1
LogFile "/var/log/vnstat.log"

# file used as daemon pid / lock file
PidFile "/var/run/"

# vnstati

# title timestamp format
HeaderFormat "%x %H:%M"

# show hours with rate (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
HourlyRate 1

# show rate in summary (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
SummaryRate 1

# layout of summary (1 = with monthly, 0 = without monthly)
SummaryLayout 1

# transparent background (1 = enabled, 0 = disabled)
TransparentBg 0

# image colors
CBackground     "FFFFFF"
CEdge           "AEAEAE"
CHeader         "606060"
CHeaderTitle    "FFFFFF"
CHeaderDate     "FFFFFF"
CText           "000000"
CLine           "B0B0B0"
CLineL          "-"
CRx             "92CF00"
CTx             "606060"
CRxD            "-"
CTxD            "-"

Using vnstat

Monthly bandwidth

vnstat -m -i eth0

Daily bandwidth

vnstat -d -i eth0

Live bandwidth usage

vnstat -l -i eth0

Configure vnstati to generate images for bandwidth dashboard

Create the file /var/lib/vnstat/ with the content:

vnstati -s -i eth0 -o /var/www/htdocs/media/vnstat-summary.png
vnstati -h -i eth0 -o /var/www/htdocs/media/vnstat-hourly.png
vnstati -m -i eth0 -o /var/www/htdocs/media/vnstat-monthly.png
vnstati -d -i eth0 -o /var/www/htdocs/media/vnstat-daily.png

Make it executable:

chmod +x /var/lib/vnstat/

Schedule the script to run every hour to keep the images up to date:

crontab -e

Add the line:

0 * * * * /var/lib/vnstat/

Set up a dashboard

Create the file /var/www/htdocs/media/dashboard.html

Add the content below. Replace with your router IP.

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>BW Dashboard</title>
        body {
            text-align: center;

<img src="">

<h3>24 hour</h3>
<img src="">

<img src="">

<img src="">

Now you can visit your dashboard at (replace with your router IP).


sudo apt-get clean && sudo apt-get autoclean && sudo apt-get autoremove && rm /var/cache/apt/pkgcache.bin /var/cache/apt/srcpkgcache.bin

More reading

Visualize disk usage on linux with ncdu

ncdu is a great tool for visualizing your disk usage. It’s similar to software like WinDirStat for Windows and Disk Inventory X for Mac OSX.

Install it on your distro using your package manager and then run the command from any folder.


The results will look something like this:

Screenshot from Wikipedia

Fix 404 errors when running apt-get update on Debian Wheezy

If you are getting errors similar to the ones below, keep reading for a fix.

Err wheezy/main mipsel Packages
  404  Not Found [IP: 80]
Err wheezy/contrib mipsel Packages
  404  Not Found [IP: 80]
Err wheezy/non-free mipsel Packages
  404  Not Found [IP: 80]
W: Failed to fetch  404  Not Found [IP: 80]

W: Failed to fetch  404  Not Found [IP: 80]

W: Failed to fetch  404  Not Found [IP: 80]

E: Some index files failed to download. They have been ignored, or old ones used instead.

For normal servers

Edit /etc/apt/sources.list and replace the current servers in the file with

Example – before

deb wheezy main contrib non-free

Example – after

deb wheezy main contrib non-free

For Ubiquity EdgeOS routers

SSH into the console and write:

set system package repository wheezy url
commit ; save
apt-get update

Enable logging of DNS queries in Unbound DNS resolver

In order to enable logging in the Unbound DNS resolver, you have to add the following lines to your /etc/unbound/unbound.conf configuration file:

    chroot: ""
    logfile: /var/log/unbound.log
    verbosity: 1
    log-queries: yes

Then, create the file and make sure it’s owned by the unbound process:

touch /var/log/unbound.log
chown unbound:unbound /var/log/unbound.log

Finally, restart Unbound:

/etc/init.d/unbound restart

Now you should be able to see the log:

tail -f /var/log/unbound.log
[1553775590] unbound[32655:0] info: A IN
[1553775609] unbound[32655:0] info: A IN
[1553775695] unbound[32655:0] info: A IN

The reason you have to add chroot: "" is because by default unbound runs in a chroot and can’t write to /var/log.

This post was tested on OpenWRT.

Increase / add swap space on EasyEngine

EasyEngine provides you with 1GB of swap space by default, but sometimes you’d like a little bit more. Here is how you can increase the swap space:

Edit /etc/dphys-swapfile and set the following:



dphys-swapfile swapoff
dphys-swapfile setup
dphys-swapfile swapon

That’s it! Verify your new swap space with htop or top